Cadenas productivas (Cadenas de valor) “Iraca”. Nariño, Colombia.

Por: Di. Ma. Antonia Martínez M.

La Cadena productiva de la palma de Iraca, Paja Toquilla o Carludovica Palmata, del departamento de Nariño, es sin duda una “ Herencia Andina” en donde el “ Sombrero” objeto icono del hombre campesino, es tejido finamente por mujeres hábiles y amorosas que sustentan su diario vivir.

Fotografía: Maestra Artesana de la vereda Santander, La Unión, Nariño. di. Ma. Antonia Martínez, Artesanías de Colombia. 2004.

Esta cadena productiva representa una cultura socio económica sostenible que ha trascendido por muchas generaciones. 13 municipios son los actores de la cadena en Nariño. Para el año 2003, existía registro de: 6.000 mujeres tejedoras, 320 cultivadores, 500 ripiadores (preparación de la fibra) y 25 talleres de terminado, en torno al producto “sombrero”.

Grandes avances para su fortalecimiento, promoción y comercialización, ha realizado Artesanías de Colombia, reconociendo especialmente la labor del Dr. Ernesto Orlando Benavides, Subgerente Administrativo y Financero, como uno de sus grandes gestores y promotores, logrando convenios importantes a nivel nacional e internacional, y al Dr. Jaime Mora Ramos, Coordinador para el fortalecimiento de la Cadena de la iraca en Nariño, entre muchos que le han aportado a la misma.

Desde mi experiencia profesional con Artesanías de Colombia, puedo contarles, que inicie en el año 1.997, realizando una investigación para la estructuración de los “Términos de referencia, proyecto ergonómico tejeduría del sombrero en iraca” en los departamentos de Nariño, Huila y Caldas, haciendo una análisis socio – productivo, cultural y elaborando unos flujogramas analíticos de procesos para la elaboración del sombrero, orientado a fortalecer ergonómicamente el proceso de tejido. En el documento concluyo, que debe mirarse la cadena como un “sistema de valores, que requiere de: tecnología blanda, innovación interactiva y un modelo organizacional dinámico”. Auque esa no fuese específicamente la tarea encomendada, este documento, tuvo una gran historia:

La investigación realizada junto con la norma técnica NTC 3739 DE 1995 ICONTEC, Sombrero Tejido a mano de Artesanías de Colombia, y mis demás análisis en asesoría, fueron la base fundamental para la estructuración del documento “Referencial Nacional para el Sello de Calidad Hecho a Mano para productos tejidos en Iraca” ICONTEC ARTRE035201 del 27-09-2004 y el cual otorga el sello respectivo a la comunidad. Posteriormente fue base, para el documento técnico “evaluación del sistema productivo y estrategias para la cadena productiva de la iraca, Nariño”. ONUDI, 2005, (los dos a mi cargo). De igual manera, estos documentos (entre los años 2010 -2011), fueron un soporte para el otorgamiento del “Sello Denominación de Origen” para el sombrero tanto para Sandoná – Nariño, como para Suaza – Huila y Aguadas – Caldas, por parte de la Superintendencia de Industria y comercio y a cargo del profesional especializado en Propiedad Intelectual Alexander Parra, AdC. Y Cabe anotar, que en el año 2005, el documento  fue soporte y sustento para la implementación tecnológica desde el aspecto ergonómico, realizada y diseñada por di.Manuel Abella y di.Luz Dary Rosero.

Viene al caso muy gratificante contarles, que en una ocasión, me encontré, con el Magister Mario Fernado Delgado Montezuma, en Administración de la Universidad Nacional de Lanús, Argentina y profesional de Comercio Internacional de la Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, natal de Sandoná, Nariño, quien me dice “es para mí un honor conocerla, todos sus estudios, fueron base fundamental de mis tesis de grado”, igualmente me sentí muy honrada con su reconocimiento.

Gracias a Artesanías de Colombia, tuve esta oportunidad y la de ser parte del crecimiento de la Cadena de la iraca, Nariño, y por supuesto, de la mano de la comunidad, de avanzar en procesos de experimentación de materia prima, en rediseño, diseño e innovación de productos, en normalización de procesos productivos, entre otros, preparando a algunas comunidades, con mayor atención, para espacios comerciales nacionales e internacionales.

Desde todo punto de vista puedo decir, que las cadenas productivas (cadenas de valor) en Colombia, deben ser atendidas integralmente, grupos interdisciplinarios conformados por profesionales en diferentes áreas, son todos necesarios, sin embargo creo firmemente en el valor y el papel de interacción que realiza el diseñador industrial como mediador y potencializador para el desarrollo socioeconómico y su trascendencia.

Cada eslabón de la cadena, es esencial, cada uno es la pieza del engranaje para su funcionamiento. En la cadena de la iraca: los proveedores de materia prima e insumos, los productores, los comercializadores y distribuidores, se complementan… sin embargo, para su competitividad, debe integrarse el quinto eslabón el diseñador industrial como actor, en el inicio (análisis del mercado y el consumidor, en el proceso (innovación, diseño, control y calidad) y al final (análisis retrospectivo y prospectivo)de la misma.

Aunque actualmente la cadena de la iraca de Nariño, puede tener falencias, pienso que las necesidades son el reflejo de una constante evolución, y considero, que esta cadena es una de las más desarrolladas e importantes del sector artesanal en Colombia, la cual esta preparada para grandes producciones y abierta a todas las posibilidades y exigencias del mercado.

“ Como diseñadora para la Cadena de valor, de la iraca en Colombia, puedo decir que he aprendido de trabajo en equipo, colaboración, subsistencia, supervivencia, persistencia, fortaleza, sabiduría, habilidad, esencia y trascendencia”.

Por admin

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